Los vecinos del entorno de San Francisco el Grande–Vistillas y madrileños de muchas otras zonas, estamos en contra de la ejecución del plan Parcial de reforma interior de la Cornisa del río Manzanares, aprobado por el pleno del Ayuntamiento de Madrid el día 27 de febrero de 2009, por el cual se autoriza al Arzobispado a construir edificios con una superficie mínima de 25.557,67 m2 y al Ayuntamiento a levantar edificios para equipamientos públicos, en una zona especialmente importante para la ciudad, por ser una zona verde, una zona de importante valor arqueológico y un paisaje emblemático de Madrid.

La ejecución de este Plan urbanístico supone la destrucción de 15.000 m2 de zona verde, una de las más importantes del distrito centro, tan necesitado de ellas; para construir equipamientos que se podrían ubicar en otros lugares próximos.

Supone igualmente sepultar bajo cemento parte del patrimonio histórico de la ciudad: en concreto las trazas de los antiguos jardines de los Duques de Osuna, – primer jardín paisajista de España -, de los restos del convento de San Francisco el Grande y de la Cerca de Felipe IV ( con protección BIC en categoría de documento ).

El desarrollo de este proyecto llevaría a la desaparición de un paisaje que pertenece a la estética y a la cultura visual de esta ciudad y supondría la merma de la calidad de vida de todos los vecinos del entorno y de todo Madrid.

Las alternativas a esta destrucción podrían pasar por la posible restauración histórica de los jardines y la integración de los restos del convento y de la Cerca en el espacio público donde se ubican.




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If you have just finished your high school and you are wondering whether there are any opportunities out there to further your studies, worry not because they are in plenty. Most students want to get out of their comfort zone and study in areas away from their hometown. Science is one of those disciplines that ventures into many careers. There is so much to study in this area as well as immense opportunities. For the students who are fascinated by science subjects and would like to explore the world while studying any subject in this wide and diverse discipline, they have quite a number of choices to pick from. There are thousands of colleges and universities abroad that offer science courses. As well, there are several websites that help with science homework contains resources for helping you with your homework What is even better news is that there is quite a variety of these science courses. Below, we shall explore some of the common and most viable science courses that you can study abroad.

  1. Food science

This is an area that is committed to studying food. Studying a degree in food science is aimed at producing a well trained graduate in all aspects of food production. Food is a basic human need and this area is a vital and important contribution to our economy. Each economy is different and studying abroad will allow you to learn different cultures as well as get accustomed to the developed nations that use advanced methods and techniques in their food production.

  1. Actuarial science

If you are good in mathematics, chances are that you will make a good potential candidate in actuarial science. From your mathematical and statistical knowledge, you will be able to assess risks in insurance, finance and other industries. This area of science cannot be ignored as the number of businesses running in the world is too many. More businesses are still coming up hence this is a profession that will never become redundant. You can study for this course abroad in the thousands of colleges and universities abroad. You also stand a chance of securing a job abroad since most companies are more likely to hire graduates from certain colleges and universities of their preference.

  1. Sport science degree

This is an area of science that deals with sport performance. Sport performance affects the behavior of our bodies and minds. It has a lot to do with physiology and psychology. In the world we live today, more and more people are taking up exercises and they need a professional to help them come up with meal plans and work out routines that is fit for their metabolism. You can study for a sport science degree anywhere abroad as it is widely accepted.

  1. Forensic science

This involves the application of science in solving both civil and criminal justice. Forensic scientists examine evidence using scientific knowledge so as to solve crimes. This is a course in high demand and studying it abroad will earn you prestige in both your home country as well as the one you are in. there are quite a number of colleges and universities offering this course at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The more advanced you become in knowledge and skills, the more your remuneration shoots up. It is therefore a win-win situation.

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The Greek and Roman ancient cultures in sporting activities highly influenced the development of a new level of sports in the contemporary society. The Romans used sports as a form of instilling peace and unity in the society. Besides, most of the Romanic games were ideas borrowed from the Greek people and later customized and incorporated into the Roman culture. The Greek literature and art influenced the idea of competitive sports. Traditionally, the Greek people organized various events that involved people from all classes of the society. Notably, sports among the Greek people ensured that people looked beyond their differences and remained as a united community. Therefore, sports not only brought about patriotism but also allowed people to feel a sense of belonging. Equally, the sporting in Rome depicts a high sense of patriotism. Although the bloody sports seemed brutal, leaders employed the strategy to align citizens to the provisions of the Roman law. The Romans believed that such games made them unique and this increased the unity among the people. Notably, the sporting culture of the Greek and Roman people shaped the global participation in different activities in the present society.

 

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Both Roman and Greek sporting cultures highly contributed to the western civilization. The culture and their nature of competition set a new pace for the today’s Olympic Games. The ancient Greek and Roman contestants prepared for the sports through physical exercises and training from experts. Similarly, the global competitions in the contemporary world depict similar practices like those in the Greek and Roman culture. Today’s Olympic Games is an example of the immense patriotism depicted by different countries of the world. The fact that nations have a well-structured plan for preparing towards the Olympics shows that the impact of the Roman and Greek sporting events caused countries to consider strategies that promote patriotism in their countries.
The cultures of the Greek and Roman people contributed to the development of structures and stadia that host various sporting events. Currently, hosting Common Wealth Games at Gold Coast in Australia was based on the availability of adequate infrastructure to host the activities and accommodate people. Different from the ancient times, people who wish to watch the games live choose to either travel or follow the developments while at home. During the Greek and Roman ancient times, the sporting activities were held in a common community venue, where people attended from different parts of the country. Equally, people at home followed the field events religiously as a show of patriotism. The Roman and the Greek art provided architects with ideas of developing playing fields. The Roman Colosseum is one of the structures that influenced the construction of the contemporary stadia.

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During the ancient times, participation in the Olympics was restricted to men, and only free-born Greek nationals would participate in the games.  The winners would wear crowns to symbolize their achievements. Besides, the cities would bestow the winning participants with riches upon returning home.  Additionally, the Greeks sponsored lucrative sporting contests where winners would be awarded with expensive prices and public acclaim. Notably, the Panathenaic Games was the most common event.  Male athletes served as icons of physical beauty and objects of erotic desires. In fact, the famous athletes had sculptures cave their figures out of stone.

The Modern Greek sports include football, volleyball, basketball and athletics. The Greek pioneered the Olympic Games. Besides, during global sports Greece appears as one of the countries that has won many medals. The Greek people also ensure that they have participants in every sporting event. The country is known for best basketball and soccer players. The level of participation in the Olympic Games shows that the Greek people love sports and they are dedicated in winning medals. The immense show of support from the Greek citizens portrays an aspect of patriotism.

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Greek Sport

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The ancient Greeks delighted in any form of competition. Mainly, their cultural practices formed the basis of the competitive nature of the ancient Greek. Apart from competitive sports, the ancient Greeks engaged in contests in dramatic plays, poetry, drinking, and singing. Chariot races, wrestling, and running were sponsored by leaders like Achilles, as a show of respect to Patroclcus. Winningwas part and parcel of any competition, and the ancient Greeks participated in competitive sports as a way of bringing communities together. The sports also provided a chance for the young Greeks to learn about their cultures. The winners were gifted with a crown of olives. Traditionally, olives were regarded as a sign of prestige and value for money. Besides, losers and winners were never allowed to shake hands. The spirit of competition developed during the games of the ancient Greek mirrors the nature of competition presented in the today’s Olympic Games. Interestingly, competition in the ancient Greek was not only about winning the prize but also bringing communities together.

In the traditional Greek and Roman culture, sports played an integral role in the development of the society. The sports help in the teaching of team work and the skills necessary for hunting and gathering.  However, it evolved to athletic contests with time, an aspect that was cherished by the community.  Sports in the ancient period were embedded into traditional rituals and activities in sacred places, which remain at cultural centers in the world today. The ancient Greeks rationalized the facet of competitive sport from funeral games into well-organized sports extravaganzas.  The sports were held in sacred sites in honor of the Greek gods. Most importantly, athletics were held every four years, and were named as the Olympic Games. Greek citizens made pilgrimages to Olympia at least once in a lifetime to enjoy the occurrence of sports activities.  Most city-states in the country sponsored many upcoming stars to become professionals and participate to represent their localities.  Through this way, they would bring fame and prestige to the community and home towns.

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Subsequently, blood sports in Rome acted as a form of aligning communities to the Roman laws. The history of bloody games lasted for more than 2000 years. Precisely, the bloody games acted as a form of entertainment for people from the lower economic class. Besides, rulers supported bloody games to enable people uphold the rules and regulations of the society. On the contrary, the participants of such games felt a great sense of humiliation if they lost their lives in the quest of entertaining people. One could conclude that the bloody games represented oppression and injustice to slaves, but on an interesting twist, the ancient Roman population valued those events. The overwhelming attendance displayed a show of immense patriotism, as the Romans felt that they needed to support the games that brought about uniqueness in their culture.

On the contrary, not all sports in Rome depicted blood and violence. Peaceful sporting activities brought together people of all ages. For instance, hoop rolling borrowed from the precepts of the ‘Greek Hoop’ is a dominant game that depicts peaceful nature of the Roman people. Reportedly, Campus Martius was a popular venue for hoop rolling game. Equally, the ancient Romans engaged in bot indoor and outdoor games. For example, the Roman Chess referred to as Ludus latrunculorum was one of the dominant indoor games similar to the modern chess.

The present city of Rome is full of sports enthusiasts. It is common to experience the loud sound of cheers in various cities, with fans of different sporting activities. Notably, football is the national sport of Italy. There are two teams that play in the city of Rome, Lazio and AS Roma. Specifically, the Campionato Italiano, commonly known as the Italian Champions League is the most prestigious duel between the two teams each year. Thousands of football fans flock the Olympico Stadium to watch the match.

Similarly, Rome hosts a plethora of sports events which include tennis, basketball and rugby.  Specifically, tennis fans get to enjoy the sport during the Tennis International Championships that happens for two weeks at the Foro Italico. Besides, golfers play at various golf associations within Rome, while trotters run their horses at the Ippodromo do Tor di Valle. Dog races happen at the Cinodromo Track, while Valle-Lunga hosts the Formula One Grand Prix.

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Roman Sport

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The ancient Romans participated in both indoor and outdoor sporting activities. Mainly, the Romans borrowed some ideas from the Greek sports and personalized some ideas. Most of the sporting activities displayed aspects of physical strengths and endurance. The rich Romans owned large and beautiful playing fields. The play grounds were either a gymnasia or a palaestrae. These places acted as status symbols and this made Emperor Nero to reconsider building a public gymnasium, which became significant symbols of the Roman power. Emperor Nero’s leadership lasted between 37AD and 68AD, and it was in this period and reign that he spearheaded the construction of massive amphitheaters for different sporting activities, especially the violent fights of the gladiators. The rich Romans showed patriotism by contributing money for the construction of more playing grounds across Rome. The government added running tracks and wild animal chambers together with chapels.

Chariot racing still remains as one of the popular sports in Rome. The idea originated from the Greek people, as chariot racing mostly happened during the Pan-Hellenic Games in the ancient Olympics. Different teams participated in the event, and received financial support from different groups. Tension and conflicts characterized this race, forcing the Roman emperor to maintain law and order by appointing officials in charge of games to maintain peace.

Gladiator fighting remains as one of the bloodiest Roman sport. Interestingly, the fighters also engaged with wild animals. This game was showcased for entertainment purposes. Alike, the Romans valued the games as they depicted the martial ethics of the ancient Romans. For this reason, the game was of great importance to them. Thousands of people attended the gladiator fighting, and this meant that this contest increased a high sense of patriotism among the ancient Romans. The gladiators were mostly captured slaves, who were trained and fed in seclusion.

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Historians regard the ancient Greek as the pioneers of philosophy, art, and science. The role of reason and inquiry remain as the key elements that characterize the Greek philosophy. Equally, the Greek mathematicians and scientists described elements that influenced today’s geometry and scientific discoveries. Additionally, Greek art and literature explained the Greek culture. Language, religion, laws, and traditions that promote humanity characterize the concept of culture in the ancient Greek. The Ancient Greek traditions were of a religious nature, as they celebrated Easter and Christmas. Equally, theatre and literature were important, as they portrayed the Greek’s believe system, which influenced the contemporary modern cultures. Socrates, one of the renowned Greek philosophers, explained that patriotism means supporting positives deeds done by leaders and condemning any ill forms of leadership. Socrates believed that this act helps in creating a good country. In ancient Greece, anyone who provided for the poor and physically challenged displayed a sense of patriotism. Moreover, the Greek people regarded participation and winning in war by warriors as a show of patriotism. Hercules and Helen were some of the leaders in the ancient Greece, who depicted astute leadership that united the Greek people and increased their loyalty in being Greek.

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Romulus and Remus founded the ancient Rome in an interesting manner. During this period, there were more men in Rome than women. Romulus, the first Roman king, feared that if the Roman men failed to get wives, there was a possibility of extinction of the Roman people. For this reason, he organized a festival, where he invited the neighboring tribes including the Sabine women. Particularly, the festival would offer a chance for the Roman men to capture the women and marry them forcefully. The women had no choice but to accept the Roman men as their husbands. The ancient culture developed through interaction of people who spoke French, Italian, Spanish, and the Roman languages.

Subsequently, the Roman culture influenced thousands of other philosophies in the world. For instance, the Roman art and architecture are some of the aspects of culture that attract other communities in the world. The Roman artists and architects developed works that defined the beliefs and the attitudes of the Roman people. For example, the Roman Colosseum influenced ideas of the developed sporting stadia in the contemporary society. Through these works, the Romans established a great sense of patriotism that increased unity among its people and leaders.

Interestingly, Romans believed that men and women had an equal place in the society. The belief contradicts with the Greek perspective, since they regarded women as people from a different species. In the ancient Rome, the idea of pietas familae explained the role of women, which included child bearing and nurturing the family. In fact, early marriages occurred as a form of avoiding any sexual histories that would embarrass the woman and her family. From the Roman perspective, it is clear that women never participated in any sporting activity. However, by cheering the male participants, they still showed their loyalty to the Roman Empire.

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Sports competitions on both local and global levels intensify the love for one’s country. Patriotism refers to the attachment to one’s home or country. Besides, it is a combination of features such as history, culture, politics, and ethnicity. Historians trace back the origin of patriotism to the Elizabethan era of the word patriota, which was translated as countryman. Equally, in the ancient Greek, patriotism was derived from the word patris, meaning fatherland. In the prehistoric Rome, patriotism explains the conceptual meaning of being loyal to one’s country.  Over the years, scholars engaged in heated debates that sought the right term which explains loyalty to a country. The meaning of patriotism is deeply rooted in the Roman perspective of the terms patria and patrius, which meant a city, fatherland, and a native place. The Roman scholars related it to the word familia, which means family. The Romans also believed that atrius and patrius explain the fatherly role linked to property, status, and power. In Rome, a Roman patrician class possessed wealth, which accorded them power and respect in the political arena. A show of loyalty to the powerful and wealthy families proved significant for survival and success in politics. Sporting activities remain as one of the strategies that leaders utilized to increase the sense of patriotism in their countries. In the ancient Rome and Greece, sports played a fundamental role in enhancing unity and peace with their neighboring countries. These ancient cultures utilized sports in various social contexts for both entertainment and competition purposes. Clearly, sports held the concept of patriotism played a significant role in both ancient and Modern Greek and Roman cultures.

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